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Further Characterisation of Native Copper Inclusions in Cu-Bearing Tourmaline. The Journal of Gemmology, 38(5), 427-429.
Since about three years, we see at SSEF occasionally chrysoberyl samples of very dark purplish to purplish brown colour, sometimes of quite impressive size (>10 ct). Based on chemical composition, these chrysoberyls show distinct concentration of chromium, but no evident change of colour, thus do no
Jadeite-jade of saturated emerald green colour is highly valued in Asia. It is therefore not astonishing to see in the market either heavily treated jadeite-jade or even imitations made of different minerals which pretend to be fine quality jadeite-jade of “Imperial green” colour.
Copper-bearing tourmaline, also known as Paraiba tourmaline in the trade, may come in a range of colours from blue to green. Similarly, the colour saturation of such copper-bearing tourmalines may vary largely, from saturated and vibrant – also known as “electric” or “neon” – to very lig
A few months ago, a client submitted to SSEF two tourmalines of attractive and matching shape, size and colour, both supposedly being Paraiba tourmalines (Figure 1). Chemical analyses and absorption spectra (UV-Vis-NIR) quickly revealed that their composition and colour cause was much less matching
Last summer, the SSEF received a series of nine small blue cabochons ranging in weight from 0.4 to 1.5 ct. The client assumed that these stones were Paraiba tourmalines from a very early production of the Sao José da Batahla mine in the state of Paraiba in Brazil, as they were safeguarded for seve
The mineral chrysoberyl BeAl2O4 is an attractive gemstone that shows a wide variation of colours mostly ranging from yellow to green and brownish green to dark brown. These colours are mainly due to the presence of iron and sometimes vanadium as chromophore elements inside the crystal lattice struct
From time to time, we receive some oddities for testing, such as the rough “emerald”, reportedly originating from Africa and submitted by a client for testing. Already a quick visual examination made it clear that this was not an emerald. The surface was dominated by conchoidal fractures and cov
Opal comes from the Sanskrit upala and the Latin opalus, meaning “precious stone”. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23/24 – 79) wrote that: “In the opal you will see the refulgent fire of the carbuncle (red gems), the glorious purple of amethyst, and the sea green of the emerald, a
Heat treatment of ruby, sapphire and other colour varieties of corundum is one of the main issues for the gem trade. As such, detecting such treatment is a major task of gemmological laboratories issuing gemstone reports. Unfortunately, and especially lately, the detection of such heating is not alw
Gold-coloured platelet inclusions have been reported in copper- bearing tourmaline from Paraíba State in Brazil since the discovery of this highly sought-after gemstone (Fritsch et al., 1990) in the late 1980s. Until now, this extraordinary type of inclusion in tourmaline was mentioned in the lite