Neutron Radiography and Tomography: A New Approach to Visualize the Internal Structures of Pearls. Published in Journal of Gemmology, 2018, 36(1), 56-63.
Radiocarbon 14C dating of pearls: from the study of cultural heritage to cultured pearl identification. 2017 presentation by Dr. Michael Krzemnicki at Jewellery Matters Symposium at Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam (Netherlands).
Radiocarbon Age Dating of 1,000-Year-Old Pearls from the Cirebon Shipwreck (Java, Indonesia). Published in Journal of Gemmology, 2017, 35, 8, 728–736.
Author(s): M.S. Krzemnicki, L.E. Cartier, I. Hajdas
Simultaneous X-ray Radiography, Phase-Contrast and Darkfield Imaging to Separate Natural from Cultured Pearls. Published in Journal of Gemmology, 2017, 35, 7, 628–638.
Author(s): M.S. Krzemnicki, C. Hanser, V. Revol
Characterization of pearls by X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer. Published in Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, 6, 1–7.
Author(s): V. Revol, C. Hanser, M.S. Krzemnicki
Species identification and treatment detection in dark coloured pearls. Published in 2015 Swiss Geoscience Meeting Abstract Proceedings, 134-135.
Author(s): W. Zhou, T. Dzikowski
X-ray Phase Contrast and X-ray Scattering Images of Pearls. Published in IGC 34 Lithuania Abstract Proceedings, 117-120.
Author(s): M.S. Krzemnicki, V. Revol, C. Hanser, L.E. Cartier, H.A. Haenni
Abstract: We report the first successful extraction of oyster DNA from a pearl and use it to identify the source oyster species for the three major pearl-producing oyster species Pinctada margaritifera, P. maxima and P. radiata. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments could be PCR-amplified and sequenced. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed and used to identify 18 pearls of unknown origin. A micro-drilling technique was developed to obtain small amounts of DNA while maintaining the commercial value of the pearls. This DNA fingerprinting method could be used to document the source of historic pearls and will provide more transparency for traders and consumers within the pearl industry.
Author(s): J.B. Meyer, L.E. Cartier, E.A. Pinto-Figueroa, M.S. Krzemnicki, H.A. Haenni, B.A. McDonald